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The attack on our outer ramparts - first the house of refuge - then the public schools - then - the Constitution!

Keppler, Joseph Ferdinand, 1838-1894
A hapless army of clergymen assaults a fortress labeled "Non-Sectarian Institution" around a building labeled "House of Refuge" with a battering ram labeled "Freedom of Worship Bill." One bishop is carrying a military standard labeled "In hoc signo vinces" (In this sign you will conquer) that shows a ballot box labeled "Irish Vote." Defending the ramparts are newspaper editors, including Puck. In the middle distance is a building labeled "Public School" and in the background, atop a hill, is a statue labeled "Constitution" that states, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion."
Church and state, Theocracy, Clergy, Fortification, Battles, Battering rams, Legislation, Newspaper editors, Standards, Military
Theodore Roosevelt Center
These images are presented through a cooperative effort between the Library of Congress and Dickinson State University. No known restrictions on publication.
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